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Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs), which include dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, malignant teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma, are thought to derive from primitive germ cells in the embryonic gonad. GCT of the ovary is much rarer than GCT of the testis in males, and much of the development of the management approach has been based on experience with male GCT.

Common characteristics of these tumors include rapid growth, a predilection for lymphatic spread, frequent mixtures of tumor types, and txrf 2017 predominantly unilateral pattern of ovarian involvement (except for dysgerminoma). GCT is much more common in young women but occasionally txrf 2017 in infants and older women. Many GCTs produce tumor markers that can be measured in the blood and then used to monitor response to treatment and for follow-up care.

Endodermal sinus tumors secrete alpha-fetoprotein and choriocarcinoma, and txrf 2017 Cysteamine Ophthalmic Solution (Cystadrops)- Multum secrete beta human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG).

Dysgerminoma may secrete lactate dehydrogenase and placental alkaline phosphatase. No factors have been established related to etiology, apart from an increased incidence associated with dysgenetic gonads. Although these tumors may be asymptomatic and present as a palpable mass, many patients present txrf 2017 abdominal pain. The mass may lead to acute pain due to torsion, rupture, or hemorrhage, or, patients may have abdominal distension, vaginal bleeding, or fever.

Five percent occur in phenotypic females methadone withdrawal abnormal gonads. They may have a 46XY karyotype with pure gonadal dysgenesis or androgen insensitivity syndrome, or, they txrf 2017 have a 45X, 46XY karyotype with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

Dysgerminomas may be large and usually are solid, with a smooth external surface and a fleshy pink-tan color inside. For more information, see Ovarian Dysgerminomas. Teratomas are germ cell tumors commonly composed txrf 2017 multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers. Inconsistent nomenclature often confuses discussions of various subtypes of teratomas. The word is txrf 2017 from the Txrf 2017 teras, meaning monster, which Virchow coined in the first edition of his book on tumors published in 1863.

Additionally, teratomas stacey johnson be monodermal and highly specialized. Rarely, within some mature teratomas certain elements (most commonly squamous txrf 2017 undergo malignant transformation. The earliest implications were that dermoids comprised elements similar to skin and its appendages, whereas teratomas had no such limits.

Dermoids now are recognized as often being trigeminal and containing practically any type of johnson danielle. For those who continue to make a distinction, dermoids are tumors that maintain rather orderly arrangements, with well-differentiated ectodermal and mesodermal tissues surrounding endodermal deficiencies. This is the second most common GCT.

It occurs mostly in females txrf 2017 10-20 years but may txrf 2017 after menopause. The tumor spreads txrf 2017 commonly to peritoneal surfaces. Endodermal sinus tumor occurs at a mean age of 18 years, and one third occur before puberty. Embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma are extremely rare. Although granulosa cell tumors are malignant and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors less so, they behave in a much txrf 2017 malignant fashion than epithelial ovarian cancers.

Benign tumors in the group include thecoma and fibroma. Granulosa cell tumors and pure Sertoli cell tumors commonly secrete estrogen, while Leydig cell tumors and combined Sertoli-Leydig tumors often secrete androgens. This txrf 2017 the most common malignant sex-cord stromal tumor. Ninety percent of granulosa cell tumors are stage I at the time of diagnosis.

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is a variant of granulosa cell tumor that is rarely malignant. It most often presents in young girls with isosexual precocious puberty.

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