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Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum something is

One is journal of great lakes research there can be a difference in acceptability according to whether the subject denotes an entity that is tangibly altered in state: This bottom bunk has been slept in is Naprelan (Naproxen Sodium)- Multum more acceptable than?.

The bottom bunk has been slept above, apparently because sleeping in a bunk bed alters its state (the sheets are wrinkled Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum so on), while sleeping in the top bunk above it doesn't alter its state at all. Intuitively, you use a prepositional passive when the VP expresses a relevantly important property of the subject. That's a restriction on prepositional passives, because there is nothing peculiar about the active version Someone has slept above this bottom bunk.

The participle in a passive clause is nearly always a past participle, but not quite always: most dialects of English have a construction called the concealed passive in which the verb of the passive clause is in the gerund-participle form, the one that ends in -ing.

Most commonly a concealed passive clause involves the verb need, as in these examples: It needed washing anyway. That rash needs looking at by a specialist. In these examples washing and looking are gerund-participles, but the sense is still clearly the one that shaggy balls the passive the subject of wash roche hitachi cobas not denote the person who does the washing, and the subject of look does not denote the specialist.

For some speakers there are a few verbs other than need that allow this construction. Want may allow it, for example. In the 18th century there was another passive-like construction with a gerund-participle: the so-called passival, as in His tooth was pulling out by a dentist, where a gerund-participle is the complement of be. I am not dealing here with the case of those few transitive verbs that are sometimes Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum intransitively with the subject understood the way the object would have Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum understood: cases like His books sell quite well, which means something like "The enterprise of selling his books goes quite well" protonix over the counter that sell is not a participle).

This construction is sometimes called the middle. It clearly differs from Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum passive: it can't take a by-phrase. You can of course leave out all reference to the agent in a passive, precisely because the agent isn't the subject, and only the subject is fully and always obligatory in a tensed clause: The mayor had the building torn down. That doesn't express the identity of the destructive agent at all though in this case the source of the authority is clear enough, so there's no evasiveness about responsibility.

The context might be one in Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum we don't know which company did it, and any company could have, and it doesn't matter cad disease one it was.

But you don't have to leave the agent unexpressed in a passive. You could say this: The mayor psychology phd the building torn down by his brother's demolition company. The demolition agent is specified here, as you might want it to be if corrupt awarding of city contracts was suspected. So notice that the passive construction has absolutely nothing to do with the notion of being vague about agency: you can be as explicit as you want to be about who or what did the stuff that the clause talks about, and whether you use a by-phrase may not even matter.

The passive is often better suited to being explicit about agency than the active is, because the end of the verb phrase is an ideal place to put something you want to emphasize: Don't you see. The patient was murdered by his own doctor!.

There's no Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum or evasiveness about whodunnit there: it whacks you in the face with the identity of the murderer. If you want to name names and point fingers, there's often no better way to do it than with a passive construction. Let me now add a reminder about a point made earlier: we have been talking about actions like damaging, tearing down, murdering, and so on.

These denote actions affecting physical objects. Not all wc poop are like this. J is followed by K is a passive clause, but it doesn't talk about anybody doing anything to anything. It just has a passice VP with a past participle, and its subject is understood the way the object would be understood in the earlier example K follows J. Key point: The passive construction is not defined in terms of active agents doing things to affected entities.

After all, sometimes nothing is doing anything to anything: consider It is believed to have been snowing at the time, where believed is the verb of a passive clause but it isn't by any stretch of the imagination a thing that someone believes.

The passive is defined in terms of syntactic notions like subject and object and transitive verb and participle. But although I have not been fully exhaustive, I hope I have made it clear that almost everything said about passives in standard books of writing advice (and most of what linguistics books say as well) is mistaken. Indeed, often wildly mistaken. The passive does not always involve a use of be. The passive does not always involve masking the identity of the agentit can be used to put the spotlight on the agent.

The NP that is the subject in a passive is not always the one that would have been the direct object if the clause had been designed as an active one: it can be an NP that would have been the complement of a preposition, so some passive clauses have stranded prepositions.

As mentioned on Language Log here and elsewhere, the people who criticize the passive the most tend to use it more than the rest of Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum. George Orwell warns against the passive in his dishonest and rhetorically overblown essay "Politics and the English language".

White does likewise in the obnoxiously ignorant little book by Strunk that he revised and put his name on, Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum Elements of Style. Both of these authors have a johnson sound high frequency of passives in their work: more than 20 percent of their clauses with transitive verbs are cast in the passive, a distinctly higher frequency than you find in most of the prose written by normal people who don't spend their time pontificating hypocritically about the alleged evil of the passive.

I modified this post a bit on 4 June 2012, and again on 15 September 2012, and again on 10 July 2014. I have tried to Cytarabine Liposome Injection (DepoCyt)- FDA it very clear that the passive is not defined in terms Thymoglobulin (Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) Intravenous Administration)- Multum semantic notions like doer and undergoer, even though that makes for a vivid source of initial examples.



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