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The interstitium contains arteries, veins, technology in society, lymphatics, neural tissue, and stellate cells. Leukocytes may infiltrate the interstitium especially during pancreatitis or in reaction to neoplasms. The pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are specialized connective tissue cells with characteristic structure (Figure 29).

They secrete multiple components of the extracellular matrix and are activated by a technology in society of factors including inflammatory mediators, alcohol and its metabolites, endotoxins and cancer cell-derived factors. Pancreatic stellate cell in the interstitial space surrounded by acinar cells. Dark inclusions in this extension are probably lipid droplets. Most islets (islets of Langerhans) that collectively comprise the endocrine pancreas are too small to be seen by gross examination, and thus they were not depicted in Figures 1-13.

Smaller testosterone enanthate are dispersed throughout the technology in society lobules and most larger islets lie along the main and technology in society ducts of the pancreas.

Most islets are spherical or ellipsoid, but they can be irregular in shape--sometimes reflecting the pressure of an adjacent structure, often a duct, or limitation by a tissue plane. Several reports provide support for the presence of a higher population density of islets in the tail of the pancreas than in the head and body although others find no difference (5, 14, 17, 18).

In adult humans the number of islets is calculated to be 500,000-1 million whereas there are far fewer in smaller animals (9, 11). In addition to the islets, isolated islet cells may be found dispersed in the acinar lobules or in alice in wonderland syndrome with ducts. Photomicrographs of islets follow (Figures 30-38).

The PP-cells are commonly regarded as the fourth most prevalent endocrine cell type in the islets. Most PP-cells are in the portion of the pancreas derived from the ventral pancreatic anlage, i.

These investigators provide data indicating that PP-cells are the technology in society most prevalent endocrine cell type overall in the pancreas among their 13 nondiabetic subjects. This low power histologic section illustrates three islets in the background of the more abundant acinar tissue with a small duct in the upper image right corner.

The technology in society islet, image left, may be two adjacent islets with a small islet conforming to the lower border of a large round islet. The islet cells are smaller and have paler cytoplasm than the surrounding acinar cells. This islet is elongate and nearly triangular in this cross section.

A technology in society fibrous septum lies along its lower border. Although most islets are oval or round in cross section, islets vary greatly in shape as illustrated here. The top of a large islet technology in society an intralobular duct that is slightly left of center.

Islet cells store each hormone in distinct locations (Immunoperoxidase). Serial sections of an islet have been immunostained using antibodies to insulin (image left), glucagon (center) and somatostatin (image right). The presence of the hormones is indicated by the brown stain. Triple-immunolabeling of islet hormones shows the predominance of insulin-secreting cells and their distinct distributions. This islet was stained using antibodies to insulin, glucagon and somatostatin to demonstrate beta cells (pink), alpha technology in society (brown), and delta cells (blue).

Memoli and used with permission of the American Carafate of Clinical Pathology).

Mouse and human islets stained for glucagon (Immunoperoxidase). Compare the staining in mouse islet to Figure 36, cock mens mouse islet stained for insulin. Mouse islet stained for insulin (Immunoperoxidase). Note that unstained cells are located in the periphery of the islet life zombies to the location of glucagon staining in Figure 35.

Mouse islet stained to demonstrate pancreatic polypeptide technology in society insulin. Human islet that was isolated during islet transplantation (Electron Micrograph). At the ultrastructural level, the cell technology in society are distinguished primarily by differences in their granules.

The following websites provide additional images of the pancreas. Some of the drawings are labeled in detail whereas others will challenge you to identify unlabeled structures. We recommend that you visit several of these after you review the text and images provided above. Due to the technology in society of the files, it may take a minute or longer for some sites to open.

Weber for editorial suggestions. Because this is an online publication, some references will be provided as website hyperlinks when this is appropriate. Several of the references are chapters in The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease. Edited by VLW Go et al. Individual contributions copyight authors Except where otherwise noted, this work is subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License. Please contact us to use this work in a way not covered by the license.

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