La roche 15

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Following completion of the training procedure, the rats underwent daily 2-h extinction sessions, in which responses on the previously active lever had no programmed consequences (i.

This phase lasted until responding was extinguished (N) in a 2-h session to control for specificity of the SD to reinstate extinguished oxycodone-seeking behavior. During the SN session, continuous 70-dB white noise and illumination of a 2. The next day, the rats were presented with the light and sound SD.

The naive rats were age-matched to the rats that were used in the behavioral experiments. Individual slices were transferred to a recording chamber that was mounted on the stage of an upright la roche 15 (Olympus BX50WI). Whole-cell recordings were performed using a Multiclamp 700B amplifier (10-kHz sampling rate, 10-kHz low-pass filter) and Digidata 1440A and la roche 15 10 software (Molecular Devices).

Liquid junction potential corrections were performed offline. Pharmacologically isolated sIPSCs were recorded in the presence of the glutamate receptor blockers CNQX and APV and the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845. At this point, treatment began.

A session of baseline oxycodone self-administration was j biotechnol between the two rounds la roche 15 the Latin-square design. At the end of the experiments, the animals were rebaselined for oxycodone self-administration and sacrificed 4 d later for histology and Western blot analysis.

At the end of the experiments, the animals prednisolone 30 rebaselined for oxycodone self-administration and euthanized the next day for Western blot analysis.

The rats were euthanized by decapitation 12 h into withdrawal (i. The CeA was dissected by punching (16-gauge needle), and the tissue la roche 15 kept frozen until the analysis.

Electrophoretic separation was performed on gel at 200 V for 30 min, which was then transferred to a 0. The self-administration data were analyzed la roche 15 repeated-measures ANOVA of execution number of infusions that were earned during the escalation interval.

Data from the cue-induced reinstatement and intra-CeA nociceptin experiments were analyzed using mixed factorial ANOVA, with group as the between-subjects factor and treatment as the within-subjects factor. Locally evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potential amplitudes were analyzed using Clampfit 10 software (Molecular Devices).

Nociceptin levels between groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Correlation analysis was performed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients. For the PCA, three variables were considered: FR (measured as the average of number of rewards in the la roche 15 3 d), PR (measured as breakpoints during the PR schedule), and pain thresholds (measured as hyperalgesia during withdrawal).

The statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism, SPSS, and Statistica 7 software. Values of P The datasets presented in the current study are available la roche 15 the corresponding author upon request.

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants DA044451 and DA043799 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. We thank Michael Arends la roche 15 proofreading the manuscript.

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Carrette, La roche 15 Kononoff, Leah C. Solberg Woods, Abraham A. ResultsAddiction Index: Evaluation of Individual Differences in Addiction-Like Behaviors.

Development of oxycodone dependence in two distinct populations of HS rats identified by the addiction index.

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