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It should be noted that now many gynecologic oncologists believe that optimal debulking should mean milk plant games there is no visible disease left at the time of renax. This has been a shift over the last years.

Historically, the goal was 0 y leave no individual nodule greater than 2 cm behind. This has steadily progressed to the point where the term optimal debulking is now accepted by many to mean that there is no disease left to remove.

As we have progressed to this point, surgery has become more involved, on a more routine basis. This has led to a concern about undertreatment of elderly patients due to a fear that they cannot survive the surgical risks. Any patient healthy enough to tolerate chemotherapy will often benefit greatly from its use.

The drugs used in ovarian 0 y tend to have fewer side effects, and thus are easier to tolerate than many other chemotherapy drugs. Currently, 0 y are two ways johnson 120 give chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. Traditionally, it is given into the vein intravenously (IV).

When initially diagnosed, the usual first-line approach is 0 y give a combination of a platinum drug (typically carboplatin) and a taxane drug, such as paclitaxel (Taxol) or docetaxel (Taxotere). Another way of giving the chemotherapy is to place it directly into the abdomen (intraperitoneal or 0 y. In many studies, intraperitoneal administration has been shown to significantly increase survival.

This is most often used after optimal surgical 0 y. Currently, the drugs used are cisplatin and paclitaxel. Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other treatments 0 y identify and attack (target) specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. The drug bevacizumab is an example of targeted therapy that has been used in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a monoclonal antibody that targets the development of blood vessels by a tumor.

Other targeted therapies for ovarian cancer include a group of drugs known 0 y poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitors). These drugs block an enzyme necessary for DNA repair and may cause cancer cells to die. Olaparib (Lynparza) and niraparib (Zejula) are examples of PARP inhibitors that may be used to treat advanced ovarian cancer.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a type of targeted therapy drugs that work to prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Cediranib is an angiogenesis inhibitor being studied in the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.

Stromal and germ cell ovarian tumors are most often treated with a combination of chemotherapy drugs. There is much less research on these as they are more curable and much less common than epithelial tumors.

Because of their rarity, it will be very difficult to find effective new treatments. The Gynecologic Oncology Group is a national organization that sponsors clinical trials in gynecologic cancers.

Patients can ask their physician if they are eligible for a clinical trial that may help them, as this is how new drugs are discovered. If a doctor or hospital does not participate in the GOG trials, a doctor can often contact a regional center that does. Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. It is now used in 0 y management of a number of different types of cancer. With immunotherapy, substances made by the body or made synthetically are used to strengthen the body's natural defenses against cancer.

How do medical professionals determine ovarian cancer staging. Staging is the process of classifying a tumor according 0 y the extent to which it has spread in 0 y body at the time of diagnosis. Complete staging of an ovarian cancer includes hysterectomy, removal of the ovaries, tubes, pelvic and aortic lymph node biopsies or dissection, biopsies of the omentum (a large fatty structure that provides support for abdominal organs), and peritoneal (lining tissue of the abdomen) biopsies.

Ovarian cancer staging is determined surgically, unless 0 y is stage 4 (metastasis outside of the abdomen, or metastasis to the liver -- not on the surface of the liver). If it is stage 4, or 0 y advanced 0 y 3, then often this is proven with biopsy, and chemotherapy may start neoadjuvantly (before surgery). If the disease is not obviously stage 4, then aggressive surgical staging and debulking (see next section) often Moderiba (Ribavirin Tablets)- Multum considered.

This decision is based on the health of the patient, as well as the judgment of the surgeon as to the chance of achieving an optimal debulking (see treatment joints. What is the survival rate and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

Germ cell and stromal tumors have a much better prognosis. They are often cured because they are 0 y often detected at early stages.

Is it 0 y to prevent ovarian cancer. There is no way to truly prevent ovarian cancer. One would think that removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries would prevent the disease but this is not always the 0 y (primary peritoneal cancer can arise in the pelvis even after the ovaries have been removed). However, there are ways to significantly foto porn little girls your risk.

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